Banco de datos de lenguas paleohispánicas

Maps of inscriptions

Maps: Javier de Hoz y Daniel Romero

The maps which appear here are designed to provide a general overview of the geographical distribution of major features of the Palaeohispanic epigraphy and languages.

Map 1, General Map of Pre-Latin Inscriptions, indicates all the places in which inscriptions in a language other than Latin have appeared, both those in Palaeohispanic languages and in Greek and Phoenician. As one can see in the identification of the signs used, besides the obvious groups defined by language and script—which as regards the Iberian language implies three different groups—a small number of inscriptions with special problems have been identified: a) the Salacia mint, whose (probably non-Iberian southern) script still cannot be classified with any certainty, b) inscriptions in southern script whose language does not seem to be Iberian, and c) inscriptions on SW headstones, often called Tartessian. The criterion used to distinguish the latter from non-Iberian southern inscriptions is, above all, redundancy, in other words, spellings such as kaa, taa, etc., although non-Iberian inscriptions in southern script that appear in the same area are probably in the same language and distinct from those classified in the same way in Andalusia, but for the moment there are no data available to be able to be more precise. The letters and numbers which identify the inscriptions coincide as far as possible with the numeration used in MLH.

Map 2, Iberian Isoglosses indicates places where there are inscriptions with linguistic features characteristic of the Iberian language, personal names formed with elements of the Iberian onomastic repertoire, some particularly frequent and clearly segmented suffixes and, in southern Iberian inscriptions, the S56 sign in an end position which behaves like a suffix. If the generally accepted transcription was correct, it would cease to be a southern feature and would have to be reconsidered, taking into consideration all words in Levantine Iberian and Greco-Roman that end in –r.

The following maps combine the chronological criterion with a typological classification of transcriptions. Below these maps one can find an explanation of the conventional signs which indicate the type of inscription. Of course, these maps do not include all known inscriptions because many are not at all datable.

Map 3, Inscriptions Before the 4th Century BC, indicates the places in which there are Phoenician and Greek inscriptions dating from this period, some (although not many) strictly speaking Palaeohispanic inscriptions and the group of SW inscriptions, only datable as a group and almost never in the specific case of an inscription, so that it is not beyond the realm of possibility that some of them might already date from the 4th century BC, although it does not seem as if the culture to which they belonged lasted much time that century.

Map 4, Inscriptions From the 4th and 3rd Centuries BC, demonstrates the progressive increase in Palaeohispanic inscriptions, with the exception of those of the SW, which disappear.

Map 5, Palaeohispanic Inscriptions After the 3rd Century BC and Latin Inscriptions Dating from the Republic, demonstrates an enormous expansion of Palaeohispanic epigraphy, the appearance of two new groups within this: that of inscriptions in the Celtiberian language, both in the script adapted from Levantine Iberian and in the Latin alphabet, and the occasional inscriptions in the Lusitanian language and the Latin alphabet that belong already to the imperial era. Moreover, the map also includes pre-Augustan Latin inscriptions taken from the book by B. Díaz Ariño, Epigrafía latina republicana de Hispania, Barcelone 2008.

Legend of the maps

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